Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Pros and Cons of Standardized Testing - 1050 Words

One of the biggest topics in the educational world is standardized tests. All fifty states have their own standards following the common core curriculum. There are many positives and negatives that go with the standardized tests. A standardized test is any type of â€Å"examination thats administered and scored in a predetermined, standard manner† (Popham, 1999). These standardized tests are either aptitude tests or achievement tests. Schools use achievement tests to compare students. There are pros to standardized examinations as tools for gaining information about student’s literacy strengths and weaknesses that can influence instruction. A pro to standardized examinations is that every student in the same state will take the same tests.†¦show more content†¦Each student will have the same material from the week in their binder. It is imperative to communicate to each student that this is their way to show their progress throughout the year. Next, explain tha t this portfolio will be checked at any time without notice (minim once a month). There will also be three scheduled checks. Checking the binder will encourage the students to maintain and evaluate them. The portfolio will then be graded for organization and neatness. This will give the student the responsibility of making sure that their portfolio is in order to receive a good grade. These portfolios/binders will hold writing assignments, vocabulary sheets, spelling tests, and short stories with the question and answer page. These will be placed into the binder every Friday or as soon as they are given back to the student. Each page mentioned above has their own importance to the student’s growth. Assessments should be added at the beginning, middle, and end of the year. The educator will be able to see the exact progress the student has made throughout the year. The portfolio can effectively be used for summative and formative assessment. The first evaluation will involve a private conversation between the student and the educator. This would be a formative assessment. This assessment concentrates on observing the students response to instruction. Formative assessment gives instant feedback to the educator and studentShow MoreRelatedPros And Cons Of Standardized Testing801 Words   |  4 Pagescontroversial topic Since Middle School, I was not opposed to standardized testing. I thought of it as a way of testing us of what we have learned. Although, after reading some articles about standardized testing I am re-thinking the pros and cons. From personal experience, I thought of it as a challenge to pass them. But now that reminisce about it, I noticed some of the cons of standardized testing. I remember having a week or two dedicated for testing, and in case of students failing they had to take timeRead MorePros And Cons Of Standardized Testing1400 Words   |  6 PagesEven though there are many downsides to standardized testing there are still viable reasons why they are still being used today. One of the main reasons includes the easy and quick access of testing students. Standardized testing allows schools to quickly access a large amount of students at one time. This is also one of the cheapest ways to tests such a large crowd due to machinery that grades which results in low tests costs f or students. These tests also help by setting a national curriculum forRead MorePros And Cons Of Standardized Testing1025 Words   |  5 PagesWhat are standardized tests? Standardized tests are exams that are administered, scored, and interpreted in the same way for all students. Now there are many pros and cons of standardized testing however, I believe that public and private schools should just abolish standardized testing all together. These tests determine a student’s academic performance and each student is given the same test with the same questions and answers. These tests are designed to measure the students learning capabilitiesRead MorePros and Cons of Standardized Testing583 Words   |  2 PagesStandardized testing has its pros and cons I do not believe in it but I will give you proof for and against the testing. We will cover some the history and where the testing came from and why we do it. I will talk a little bit of how I feel about testing and how much we should focus on how the students do on the test. I have interviewed a few teachers that I had when I went to school and some personal friends that are teachers now and how it effects how they teach. Most historians trace the beginningRead MoreThe Pros and Cons of Standardized Testing Essay674 Words   |  3 PagesStandardized testing is a down fall to many students but also an opportunity for many others. Standardized testing has its pros and its cons. It can be the make it or break it factor into getting into colleges you are hoping to attend or the scholarships you want to earn. Some people may have their opinions about the test, whether they hate it or not but the fact is that it’s here to stay. What exactly is standardized testing you may ask, it is a test which measures the knowledge among differentRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing1491 Words   |  6 PagesStandardized testing was introduced by French psychologist Alfred Binet in 1905. The test originated because Binet was commissioned by the French government to create a tool to identify which students needed remedial studies. Over time, the standardized tests evolved into multiple different tests in multiple subjects for varying age groups of students. The tests were initially seen as a way to test a large sum of people with the same general questions to see an individual’s knowledge. Some peopleRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing1511 Words   |  7 PagesOver the years the educational system has faced various controversial issues, but the most recent one making a negative impact on students, is standardized testing. Standardized testing is a type of testing used to evaluate stud ents academic abilities . It is a way to measure if standards are being met but does not provide a variation in the type of administration based on the students needs (Sacks, 2000). In other words, all children are provided these test to track their learning progress basedRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing1100 Words   |  5 Pagesscience, history, and science. Then, every year, students typically take one big standardized test, or even more. These tests are claimed to give educators an objective that’s unbiased. Standardized testing supposedly helps identify the natural tendency of individual students, identifying skill development and progress. However, are these things what standardized testing really do for students? Standardized testing only measures a small portion of what makes education substantial. This means thatRead MorePros And Cons Of Standardized Testing1201 Words   |  5 Pages Standardized testing is all based on your performance as a student on a specific day, time and place. What it doesn’t show is how you perform on a day to day basis. These types of test can be given in any type of form that requires test takers to answer the same questions, and is then scored in a â€Å"standard† or consistent manner. Students should not have to take standardized test because of many reasons. As a human I have days where I’m tired and didn’t get enough sleep the night before or it isRead MoreThe Pros And Cons Of Standardized Testing704 Words   |  3 Pagesschool. But the majority can attest to saying that they all hate standardized testing and the week that it brings. Every student knows this week all too well. From having one to two tests a day and then shortly after not being able to function properly on the rest of the school day. Many students will say that they all hate the idea of standardized testing and wish it to be gone. The real question stands though: is standardized testing increasing the performance of students? The main argument against

Monday, May 11, 2020

Career Exploration Paper - 3362 Words

Autobiography: John Krumboltz once said, â€Å"You have control over your own actions and how you think about the events that impact your life. None us can control the outcomes, but your actions can increase the probability that desired outcomes will occur. There are no guarantees in life. The only guarantee is that doing nothing will get you nowhere.† (Krumboltz, 46). In this short exert from his book titled Luck is no Accident, 10 Ways to get More out of Work and Life, Krumbolz discusses the importance of making the most out of opportunities that may seem little or pointless, and that happiness doesn’t depend on any external conditions, but instead, it is governed by our mental attitude. Throughout my life, I have only had a few jobs†¦show more content†¦According to John Holland’s Theory of Career Choice, he explains the significance of involving work related behavior. Holland makes a connection between personality type and working environment, and ho w these two aspects guide one to career success and satisfaction. After taking the personality test, I found out that I am an extrovert. Being a very social person, I need to have a job that is not boring, keeps me on my toes, and I am constantly being challenged in. After working at the Property Management Company I learned that just when you think your day can’t get any more hectic, it does. So you always have to be alert and ready to handle whatever comes your way. This is exactly the kind of job I want, and although some people may get freaked out and scared by this, things like that are what make me happy and feel accomplished. Career Decisions: The use of personality, interest, and values assessments are very crucial in overall career decisions. One should never choose a career unless they know it fits their personality, needs, and level of happiness. As Confucius once said, â€Å"Choose a job that you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life†. If we don’t choose a job that we like and enjoy doing, we may last a few weeks, months, or even years, but after a while we will feel like we are at a dead end job, doing the same thing every day, which may lead to not only stress on yourself, but also your family.Show MoreRelatedCareer Exploration Paper1320 Words   |  6 PagesCareer Exploration Paper Tori Turner Liberty University Career Exploration Paper Career Field Occupation Choice Within society, there are many occupations to explore and chose. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) results showed that my personal career strengths fall under the area of teaching and counseling. Currently, as a school counselor for a high school in Duncanville, Texas, a suburb outside of Dallas, I find the results of the assessment to be very accurate. MakingRead MoreIt Career Exploration Research Paper Dillon Evans973 Words   |  4 PagesIT Career Exploration Research Paper Dillon Evans Computer Support Specialists can fall under many different categories with the common factors being that they give advice and help to end users and organizations on computers, equipment, software, computer access, and networks. The main emphasis is that we will be working with end users to ensure that they are capable of doing their job on a networked system. As a computer support specialist you will have to be trainedRead MorePersonal Statement : Self Exploration1156 Words   |  5 Pages Self Exploration Paper Yifei Bai Arizona State University Introduction To have a clear future career plan, self-exploration would be the first step to take since those who do not know themselves well will also have no idea about where to begin their career or may be mediocre in their life (Rogers et al., 2008). Therefore, for aspiring college student, before completely stepping into the working stage, one shall specify his or her goal and make full use of the existed sources in schoolRead MoreAn Exploration Of The Behavioral Management Aide Career Essay1135 Words   |  5 PagesAbstract This paper is a brief exploration of the Behavioral Management Aide career in the Social and Human Service Assistant field. It is a sometimes difficult yet rewarding job in which the professional works with clients to assess them and help them solve any issues they are having which hinders them from living a fulfilling, happy life. It is a career that is expected to grow over the next few years and it only requires a high school education, but a college degree and previous experience isRead MoreCareer Analysis : Career Counseling1276 Words   |  6 PagesCareer Counseling Theory It appears that the most appropriate model of career counseling would depend on how much insight the client has, their stage of development, their age and cultural background, and their career and developmental maturity. All of an individuals life experiences, their personal and career goals and aspirations for the present and future will affect their choices regarding career development. There are differing opinions on which factors play the most important role in careerRead MoreAn Multi Agency Statewide Youth Initiative839 Words   |  4 Pagesweb-systems that focus specifically on career exploration: - DWS (including WRA) is a partner in this multi-agency statewide youth initiative. The LMI Department provides substantial content to the system, which packages many State resources under three key content areas: 1) Explore Careers, 2) Investigate Careers, and 3) Find a Job. DWS (including WRA) is a partner in a Statewide, multi-agency career exploration partnership and web-system gearedRead MoreProposal for a New Career Exploration Program for Service Canada1625 Words   |  7 PagesProposal for a New Career Exploration Program for Service Canada This proposal is for a new career exploration program for Service Canada office of Cornwall, Ontario. It will examine the use of four standardized assessments in career counseling, then select and budget relevant assessments and resource material. The anticipated client group includes: unemployment recipients (70% recently unemployed due to downsizing), average age is 30-40, 60% female, 20% First Nations, 20% professional immigrantsRead MoreContinuing Academic Sucess1291 Words   |  6 Pagescategories of your life such as career, family, personal, financial, educational, and spiritual (Milne,  2001). Take a career for example. Say you set a long term goal to open your own business one day. Short term goals you could set would be to put five dollars into your saving every day. A mid-term goal would be that you want to have nine thousand saved up in five years and use it for a down payment on a small store, or for merchandise for the store. My career goal is to become an admini stratorRead MoreApplying for Graduate Studies in Engineering865 Words   |  3 PagesIndia and I hold a bachelor’s degree in Electronics Instrumentation Engineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, India. I want to pursue graduate studies because it provides me the right platform for research. I envision a career involved mainly with research because it welcomes new ideas, gives me more opportunities to explore my areas of interest and put forward new theories and implement them on my own. I feel that formulating and developing ideas is actually always moreRead MoreMy First Term Of College974 Words   |  4 Pagesfavorite center I would say it’s the career exploration center, this one in specific is extremely vital to me. I’ve gone there for help figuring out my career that lays ahead of me and they helped me out so much. That center is great and what really is interesting is that it’s available to the general public not just PCC students. I learned a lot of information from here for my career path I’d like to take someday and learned the pay for that specific career. I believe every student should pay a

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sentence Coherence Free Essays

Coherence means the quality of sticking together. a sentence has coherence when the sentence elements are so arranged as to show their relationship. Clarity in the sentence depends largely on proper word order A. We will write a custom essay sample on Sentence Coherence or any similar topic only for you Order Now Achieving coherence through proper placement of modifiers A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that describes, strengthens, or clarifies another word (or group of words) in a sentence. When a modifier is placed in its proper position in a sentence, a sense of clarity is established for the reader. Example: Confusion: He barely kicked that ball twenty yards. Repair Work: He kicked that ball barely twenty yards. The issue of the proper placement of â€Å"only† has long been argued among grammarians. Many careful writers will insist that â€Å"only† be placed immediately before the word or phrase it modifies. Thus â€Å"I only gave him three dollars† would be rewritten as â€Å"I gave him only three dollars. † Some grammarians, however, have argued that such precision is not really necessary, that there is no danger of misreading â€Å"I only gave him three dollars† and that â€Å"only† can safely and naturally be placed between the subject and the verb. The argument has been going on for two hundred years. Other examples: (boardwork) 1. Mother loves the bungalow which she inherited from her grandfather. (Spanish- style, maternal) 2. The bride walked down the aisle on the arm of her father. (slowly) A. 1. Avoiding Misplaced modifiers Misplaced modifiers-a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the word it modifies How to correct a misplaced modifier: Place the modifier close to the word it modifies Error: I brought the dress from that store that I really wanted. Correction: I brought the dress that I really wanted from that store. A. 2. Avoiding Squinting Modifiers Squinting Modifiers -a phrase or clause that seems to modify two words at a time Example: Students who miss classes frequently fail the course. We can’t tell which part of the sentence the word frequently is supposed to modify. Look at these two possible meanings: Students who miss class frequently or frequently fail the course. Correct a squinting modifier error by repositioning the modifier to place it next to the word it modifies. Example 2: Cycling up hills quickly strengthens your quadriceps. (In this example, the word â€Å"quickly† is a squinting modifier. It is not clear whether â€Å"quickly† pertains to â€Å"Cycling up hills† or â€Å"strengthens†. B. Achieving coherence by Avoiding Dangling Modifiers Dangling modifiers- It is a phrase or clause that is not clearly and logically related to the word or words it modifies How to correct a Dangling Modifier 1. Change the main clause of the sentence so that it begins with the word actually mod ified Example 1. Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, the car seemed to run better. Correction: Changing the oil every 3,000 miles, Fred found he could get much better gas mileage. Example 2: To keep the young recruits interested in getting in shape, an exercise program was set up for the summer months. Correction:To keep the young recruits interested in getting in shape, the coaching staff set up an exercise program for the summer months. 2. Change the dangling modifier phrase to a subordinate clause, creating a subject and a verb Example 1: Raised in Nova Scotia, it is natural to miss the smell of the sea. Correction For a person raised in Nova Scotia, it is natural to miss the smell of the sea. The introductory phrase in the above sentence looks as if it is meant to modify a person or persons, but no one is mentioned in the sentence. Such introductory adjective phrases, because of their position, automatically modify the first noun or pronoun that follows the phrase — in this case, â€Å"it. † The connection in this case is illogical because â€Å"it† was not raised in Nova Scotia. You could revise the sentence in a number of ways: In correction: (the phrase functions as an adjective but now automatically modifies â€Å"I,† a logical connection) Example 2: Although nearly finished, we left the play early because we were worried about our sick cat. Correction: Although the play was nearly finished, we left early because we were worried about our sick cat. A dangling modifier can also appear when you place an elliptical clause improperly: Although nearly finished, we left the play early because we were worried about our sick cat. The way this sentence is structured, the clause â€Å"Although nearly finished† illogically modifies â€Å"we,† the pronoun directly following the clause. An easy way to rectify the problem is to re-insert the subject and verb that are understood in the elliptical clause: Although the play was nearly finished, we left early because we were worried about our sick cat. C. Achieving Coherence by Clear Reference of pronouns A pronoun refers to or replaces a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun already mentioned. The word the pronoun replaces is known as the pronoun’s antecedent. A pronoun should always refer to a clear and definite antecedent. C. 1. Wrong reference Make sure that a pronoun refers to a specific noun, not a possessive noun or a noun within a prepositional phrase. | Faulty | In George Orwell’s essay â€Å"Shooting an Elephant, † he reports an incident that shows the evil effects of imperialism. [The pronoun he cannot refer to the possessive noun Orwell’s. ] | Revised | In his essay â€Å"Shooting an Elephant,† George Orwell reports an incident that shows the evil effects of imperialism. [The possessive pronoun his can refer to the subject noun Orwell. ]| Avoid using a pronoun such as they or it without an explicit antecedent. | Faulty | When Rivera applied for a resident alien card, they put him through many bureaucratic procedures. [The sentence does not ha ve a clear antecedent for the pronoun they. ] | | Revised | When Rivera applied for a resident alien card, government officials put him through many manybureaucratic procedures. Before government officials issued Rivera a resident alien card, they put him through many bureaucratic procedures. | C. 2 Ambiguous References Your readers should never be left wondering which this, they, or it is being discussed. Faulty | My husband told my father that he should choose the baby’s name. [Does he refer to husband or to father ? ] | Revised | My husband told my father to choose the baby’s name. My husband wanted to choose the baby’s name and told my father so. | Example 2:Ted told Hanz that he was hungry. Ted told Hanz that the former was hungry or Ted told Hanz, † I am hungry. † Example 3: Sylvia told her mother, â€Å"I need a new wardrobe. † Sylvia told her mother that she needed a new wardrobe C. 3. No Reference Examples 1. When we went to the motor vehicle division to register our car, they kept us waiting for nearly an hour. Correction: When we went to the motor vehicle division to register our car, the clerk kept us waiting for nearly an hour. 2. Elizabeth’s mother and father are both pilots; however, Elizabeth is not interested in it. Correction: Elizabeth’s mother and father are both pilots; however, Elizabeth is not interested in flying. 3. It says in the recipe that one must use butter, not margarine. Correction: According to the recipe, one must use butter, not margarine. 4. We prefer the kind of gas stations where hot food is sold. Correction: We prefer the kind of gas stations where they sell hot food. 5, Tammy applied for a scholarship, but her advisor told her that her parents make too much money. Correction: Tammy applied for a scholarship, but they told her that her parents made too much money. How to cite Sentence Coherence, Papers

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Venus And Adonis Essays (1332 words) - Operas, Nude Art,

Venus And Adonis Venus and Adonis: Images of Sexuality in Nature Love is the answer, but while you are waiting for the answer, sex raises some pretty good questions. - Woody Allen Throughout his plays and poetry Shakespeare imbeds numerous and diverse themes, many of them relating to love, sexuality, life, death, religion and countless others. In his poem Venus and Adonis Shakespeare tackles the theme of sexuality as a representation of love, and a function of Nature. The characters of Venus and Adonis, often times reminiscent of an Elizabethan fallen Adam and Eve, create a sexually charged poem that lends much of the power and influence of love and life and death to Nature. Shakespeare creates a natural phenomenon that physically links the love and actions of these two characters to the forces, both positive and destructive, to Nature herself. The poem allows Venus and Adonis a certain power or authority over the forces that lie within the powers of Nature, but Shakespeare's creation of this sexual narrative as a depiction of erotic desire as a tragic event leads the characters to inevitable misfortune, and a complete loss of control over their circumstances. Shakespeare's text can be broadly divided into three sections. The first being Venus' expressions of love for Adonis, the second involving Adonis' death and the hunt, and the third and final section focuses on Venus' reaction to the loss of Adonis. In the first third, Venus tries with increasing desperation to entice Adonis into sex. The pastoral setting on the primrose bank is ideal for the sexually charged analogies she creates. She bombards him with oxymorons involving hot ice, showers him with floral metaphors, launches into an extended variation on the old carpe diem theme, and cracks familiar puns on words such as harts and deer. Venus seems to have inspired control over her own body, and wondrously metamorphosizes her form to suit her purpose, making it heavy enough to need trees to support it, then giving the violets she lies on the strength of trees (152). For all its desperation, the first section is energetic and hopeful, emphasizing Adonis' youth and Venus' constantly self-renewing flesh. The descriptions of love found here are wholly sexual and physically based, but there is a desperate strength in Venus' repeated attempts and persistence. However, at the center of the poem Adonis announces that he intends to hunt the boar the next day. Venus collapses with the boy on top of her, and follows what ought to be the sexual climax of Venus' attempts to lure Adonis into her bed, but all Venus gets from the encounter is frustration: `all is imaginary she doth prove' (597). In this next section of the poem, which takes place in the forest, Venus speaks of fear, the fear of the boar and the terror of the hunted hare. Death, which has been a veiled presence throughout the first half, becomes the controlling factor of the second. Instead of urging Adonis to beget, Venus warns him that he will be murdering his own posterity if he fails to make love (757-60). The youthfulness of Adonis, which had been described in such vital terms in the first section, able to `drive infection from the dangerous year' (508), suddenly finds itself subjected to more infections than it can hope to cure: As burning fevers, agues pale and faint, Life-poisoning pestilence and frenzies wood, The marrow-eating sickness whose attaint Disorder breeds by heating of the blood (739-42). At the same time Venus loses control over her body. As she hurries through the woods after the sound of Adonis' horn, her body is subjected to the intrusive gropings of bushes: Some catch her by the neck, some kiss her face, / Some twine about her thigh to make her stay (872-3). This attack on Venus' physical body, and her inability to stop it renders her even more powerless, and her dominating sexuality is turned to frightened reserve as she searches for Adonis. Her efforts to entice Adonis through her pastoral metaphors have failed, even after she evidences her love through the tangible elements of Nature. In the first half of Shakespeare's poem Venus struggles to create a poetic Eden out of the substance of Adonis' body and her own. She tells him that

Saturday, March 21, 2020

buy custom America’s Destiny essay

buy custom America’s Destiny essay America was still a very young country which had gone through war in 1812 and it had a strong sense of nationalism and boasted because it had no restraint of any kind and was not concerned with the consequences of its actions. This was an indication that the country was headed for conflict. In the mid 1800s America forged its way westward based on the popular Manifest Destiny which was a popular belief that it was Americas destiny to expand across Texas towards the pacific coast (SparkNotes, 2009). In the 1820s Americans occupied the Texas region which was a Mexican territory and by the 1830s about 7000 Americans lived in Texas outnumbering the Hispanic settlers in the ratio of two to one which was a high rate. This drew cold blood between the Mexican Government and the Americans and to make the affairs more constrained the Americans declared their independence from the Mexican dictatorship. People trailed to the west into the Oregon country (Sparknotes.Com, 2009). They were escaping the American rule they and part of the settlers were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints. Founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 in upstate New York, the Mormon Church attempted to revive the pure Christianity they believed had once existed in aboriginal America. Because of their unorthodox beliefs and practices the Mormons suffered persecution. Their prophet Joseph Smith was murdred and then they were sent even farther to the west and they were led by Brigham Young in a trek fr om Illinois to the great salt lake valley then to the land that they called Deseret had been absorbed by the United States at the conclusion of heir war and they regarded the continent their birthright. Aggression with Great Britain This is where the American conquest to expand to the west created a confrontation with Great Britain and A war with Mexico. In the book by Paul S. Boyer, they say that the Americans expanded by use of force when the first president of Texas Sam Houston said that the Indians and the Mexicans had to give way to their Mighty March. It say the n after the election of President James K. Polks administration (1845- 1849) the United States increased its land area by 50 percent. The book says that it negotiated Britain out of the vast Oregon territory and fought a war only with Mexico. But in the further research we see that the Americans caused a stir when they chose John Tyler as vice president so as to get southern votes on the Whig ticket. But the Whig leaders never expected him to rise to full position of president in 1841. By 1944 Tyler had broken with the Whig party and his hopes for re election in 1844 were placed on a new finding and popular issue. He began pushing for the ann exation of Texas a topic very popular with the southern people, but the North was indifferent and was not supporting the idea of adding a new slave state. Tyler negotiated a treaty of annexation with Texas but it was failed by the senate. The Democratic decided to nominate James K. Polk of Tennessee, who was also in favor of annexing Texas. In order to win the Northern support, Polk promised to extend United States borders all over the country of Oregon. This resulted in his victory over the Whig candidate Henry Clay but narrowly. But this turn of events was interpreted by the congress and Polk as a go ahead to implement expansion. They annexed Texas before the inauguration of Polk as President (Paul S. Boyer, 2008). The Oregon conquest The definite reason why America nearly went to war with Britain was the Oregon Question and Polk. The Ownership of Oregon as a country drew heated sides and Polk was willing to split the area wit h England. The demands by the American Public for the whole territory angered the British the more in the long run they refused to negotiate with him. In 1846 Polk notified Great Britain that the United States could not agree to share or to joint occupation and England prepared for war but also proposed the division of the area in a treaty that the senate approved. The North condemned Polk for having not persisted in his demand for Oregon. After the war of words Great Britain shared Oregon with Texas. Buy custom America’s Destiny essay

Thursday, March 5, 2020

5 Types of Eponyms

5 Types of Eponyms 5 Types of Eponyms 5 Types of Eponyms By Mark Nichol Humans so frequently find proper names the names of specific people, places, or things to be so useful for describing generic objects or concepts or qualities that they co-opt the proper names, sometimes capitalized, and sometimes lowercased. Here are just some of the innumerable examples in English: 1. Product Eponyms Ubiquitous, market-defining product names often to the consternation of the companies that market them frequently enter the vernacular (in lowercase form) to describe any product in that class. Among these are aspirin, kleenex, and xerox, though other, more surprising examples include escalator, heroin, and zipper. In the United Kingdom (but not in the United States), biro and hoover are eponymous terms for pens and vacuum cleaners, respectively. 2. Historical and Geographical Eponyms Eponyms appear in the names of many geopolitical entities (Europe, Colombia, San Francisco) and geographical or nautical locations (Tasmania, the Bering Sea), either crediting a person with their discovery or otherwise associating them with a person or a personification. Historical figures lend their names to ideas associated with them: The words boycott, chauvinist, quisling, and sandwich all derive from personal names (but are lowercased). Such is also the case with draconian, epicurean, pyrrhic, and the like. However, political movements or philosophies, or historical eras, attached to personalities are uppercased: Reagonomics, Victorian. Various collections of people are associated with proper names for locations. These, generally lowercased, include bohemian, lesbian, and philistine. Likewise, some names of ethnic groups have similarly become identified with (often negative) personal qualities, leading to references, variably uppercased or lowercased, to being welshed (or welched) on or getting your Irish up, for example. (The first word in â€Å"scot-free,† by contrast, does not refer to the Scottish.) Famous people have also been associated with items or components of clothing, or material, which are lowercased: bloomer, cardigan, raglan. Likewise, slang words can be derived from real-life people, such as the verb bogart, or â€Å"Mae West,† the onetime nickname for a life vest. 3. Literary Eponyms Fictional characters often evoke such strong qualities that we assign their names to those qualities: faustian, quixotic. We also refer to people who exhibit qualities of literary characters by directly associating them, such as when we call someone a Casanova, a Romeo, or a Svengali (retaining initial capitalization), but some other such terms, such as lothario, are lowercased. Storytellers with a distinguishable quality have given their names (with initial capitalization intact) to literary criticism for the purposes of analogy, as in Dickensian (suggesting melodramatic poverty, eccentric characters, or jollity), Homeric (epic), and Proustian (evoking personal memories). Books named after the protagonist (Jane Eyre) and record albums identified by the musician’s or band’s name (David Bowie, The Beach Boys) are eponymic. 4. Mythological Eponyms Mythological characters also inspire eponyms, which generally retain initial capital letters: We refer to the Midas touch, to someone being a Hercules or a Venus, or an Achilles’ heel (traditionally, this possessive form does not include an s after the apostrophe). But we lowercase analogous terms such as chimera and gorgon, as well as atlas, erotic, and odyssey. (And don’t forget, or confuse, Tantalus and Sisyphus: Fortunately, their eponymous adjectives, tantalizing and Sisyphean note the difference in capitalization are clearly distinct.) 5. Scientific Eponyms In science, scientists and inventors are often honored for their work by having their names assigned (in lowercase form) to refer to units of scientific measurement, as in the cases of Rudolf Diesel, Alessandro Volta, and James Watt, or to processes (galvanism) or methods (algorithm). Likewise, botanists are immortalized by having their (lowercased) names grafted onto nomenclature for plants, as with dahlia, magnolia, and poinsettia. Innovations and discoveries are also often named after their discoverers or popularizers: â€Å"Avogadro’s number,† â€Å"Alzheimer’s disease.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Vocabulary category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:20 Great Opening Lines to Inspire the Start of Your Story80 Idioms with the Word TimeI wish I were...

Monday, February 17, 2020

How do you Evaluate the Role of the Communist Party among California Essay

How do you Evaluate the Role of the Communist Party among California Farmworkers - Essay Example Before the intervention of the communists, the Mexican farm workers staged a short-lived cantaloupe strike in 19281 in the Imperial Valley that showed that the workers were incapable of bridging the ethnic divide that existed amongst them and of organizing their ranks. Later on, when the Lettuce farm workers rose up demanding better wages, the Communist Party of United States, propelled by the wave of communism spreading half the world away in Russia, sent its workers to help the protesting farm workers in 1929. The Communist Party formed the Traders Union Unity League (TUUL). According to Daniel E. Cletus, who chronicled the role of the communists in the strikes of 1930s, the involvement of the communists in the lettuce strike of 1930 ‘marked the beginning of a new period of conflict in agricultural labor relations in California’2. Though the communists were at this point spurred more by opportunism than any genuine concern for the welfare of the workers, and the strike itself deteriorated due to the arrest of the communists and the harsh repression tactics employed by authorities, the strike was the first of many, more effective strikes involving communists to come later on. About forty agricultural strikes took place between the years 1930 to 19323, before the TUUL gave way to the Cannery and Agricultural Workers Industrial Union (CAWIU), also organized by the Communist Party. The CAWIU sought to organize workers in canneries for mass picketing, but after several arrests of the strikers, the employers’ determination to quell the protests won through and the modest demands of the workers failed to get a hearing. The failure of the CAWIU in organizing an effective campaign disillusioned the workers and many of them returned to work. It is worthy to note, however, that the CAWIU began to provide experienced leaders to the workers who would organize the undisciplined masses in to a much more synchronized entity that would later achieve much m ore victories than defeats. Before the peach strike of 1933 began, the Dust Bowl Immigrants ensured that a surplus of labor, in addition to the Mexican and Filipino workers already present, existed at all times. The wages were shamefully minimal, and the lack of jobs ensured that regardless of how unsatisfied the workers were, they could not leave their jobs. The discontent produced what Kushner describes as one of the two ‘important CAWIU-led strikes in August 1933 also helped set the stage for the cotton strike’4. The peach strike was one of the first victories of the union, having won 25 and 27 ? cents per hour after four days of protesting. The extent of the involvement of the American communists in the strikes of the Californian Farm Workers became obvious when the Cotton Strike broke out. The Cotton Strike is unarguably the most significant of the 1930s’ agricultural strikes, and was also the most violent and lasted longer than the other strikes. The commun ists had by then learned many bitter lessons, and were realizing the futility of trying to direct unplanned, volatile protests that kept breaking out. The success of the Peach Strike had taught them the importance of organization. Another notable feature of the protests organized by the CAWIU was that they were devoid of any violence, and hence, impelled